Volume 3, Part 2: Infantry Regiments
THE CALGARY HIGHLANDERS
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Colonel-in-Chief: Her Majesty The Queen
A beaver couchant on a log environed by a wreath of maple leaves, in chief the Royal Crown proper flanked by two scrolls Argent each bearing a frieze of thistles proper, overall in base a like scroll above a scroll Gules inscribed CALGARY HIGHLANDERS in letters Argent, all surmounting a saltire Argent on a spray of thistles in base proper.
The maple leaves and beaver represent service to Canada, and the Crown, service to the Sovereign. The beaver upon a log within two sprays of maple leaves surmounted by the Crown was adapted from the badge of the 10th Battalion, Canadian Expeditionary Force, 1914-1920. The thistles (the national flower of Scotland) and the saltire or cross of St. Andrew (the patron saint of Scotland) are common devices among badges of highland infantry regiments. "CALGARY HIGHLANDERS" is a form of the regimental title.
The Highland Laddie; and Blue Bonnets Over the Border
The Royal Regiment of Scotland
The First World War
YPRES, 1915, '17; Gravenstafel; St. Julien; FESTUBERT, 1915; MOUNT SORREL; SOMME, 1916; Thiepval; Ancre Heights; ARRAS, 1917, '18; Vimy, 1917; Arleux; HILL 70; Passchendaele; AMIENS; Scarpe, 1918; Drocourt-Quéant; HINDENBURG LINE; Canal du Nord; PURSUIT TO MONS; FRANCE AND FLANDERS, 1915-18.
Oak leaf shoulder badge for the actions of the 10th "Overseas" Battalion, CEF, at Kitchener's Wood on 22/23 April 1915.
The Second World War
BOURGUÉBUS RIDGE; Faubourg de Vaucelles; Verrières Ridge-Tilly-la-Campagne; FALAISE; Falaise Road; Clair Tizon; Forêt de la Londe; Dunkirk, 1944; Wyneghem; Antwerp-Turnhout Canal; THE SCHELDT; Woensdrecht; South Beveland; Walcheren Causeway; THE RHINELAND; The Reichswald; The Hochwald; Xanten; THE RHINE; Groningen; Oldenburg; NORTH-WEST EUROPE, 1944-1945.
This Reserve Force regiment originated in Calgary, Alberta on 1 April 1910, when the '103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles"' was authorized to be formed.1 On 15 March 1920, it was reorganized as two separate regiments, designated 'The Alberta Regiment' (now 'The South Alberta Light Horse') and 'The Calgary Regiment'.2 On 15 May 1924, it was again reorganized as two separate regiments, designated 'The Calgary Regiment' (now The King's Own Calgary Regiment) and 'The Calgary Highlanders'.3 It was redesignated: '2nd (Reserve) Battalion, The Calgary Highlanders' on 7 November 1940;4 and 'The Calgary Highlanders' on 15 December 1945.5
Upon redesignation as The Calgary Regiment on 15 March 1920 (see above), it was organized as a four battalion regiment with the 1st Battalion (50th Battalion, CEF) and 2nd Battalion (56th Battalion, CEF) on the Non Permanent Active Militia order of battle and the 3rd Battalion (82nd Battalion, CEF) and 4th Battalion (137th Battalion, CEF) on the Reserve order of battle.
The Calgary Regiment was disbanded for the purpose of reorganization on 3 January 1921 and reorganized the same day (GO 65/21). This change was administrative and does not affect the lineage of the regiment.
On 1 April 1920, it was reorganized as a five battalion regiment with the 1st Battalion (10th Battalion, CEF) and 2nd Battalion (50th Battalion, CEF) on the Non Permanent Active Militia order of battle and the 3rd Battalion (56th Battalion, CEF), 4th Battalion (82nd Battalion, CEF) and 5th Battalion (137th Battalion, CEF) on the Reserve order of battle (GO 95/21).
On 15 September 1921, the 1st Battalion was redesignated '1st Battalion (10th Battalion, CEF), Calgary Highlanders' (GO 254/21).
Upon reorganization as The Calgary Highlanders on 15 May 1924 (see above), it was organized as a three battalion regiment with the 1st Battalion (10th Battalion, CEF) on the Non Permanent Active Militia order of battle and the 2nd Battalion (56th Battalion, CEF) and 3rd Battalion (82nd Battalion, CEF) on the Reserve order of battle. The reserve units were disbanded on 14 December 1936 (GO 3/37).
10th', '56th' and '82nd "Overseas" Battalion(s), CEF'
The First World War
Details of the 103rd Regiment "Calgary Rifles" were placed on active service on 6 August 1914 for local protection duties.6
The 10th Battalion, which was authorized on 10 August 1914 as the '10th Battalion, CEF',7 embarked for Britain on 29 September 1914.8 It disembarked in France on 14 February 1915, where it fought as part of the 2nd Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division in France and Flanders until the end of the war.9 The battalion was disbanded on 30 August 1920.10
The 56th Battalion, which was authorized on 7 November 1914 as the '56th Battalion, CEF,11 embarked for Britain on 20 March 1916.12 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 6 July 1916, when its personnel were absorbed by the '9th Reserve Battalion, CEF'.13 The battalion was disbanded on 15 September 1917.14
The 82nd Battalion, which was authorized on 10 July 1915 as the '82nd "Overseas" Battalion', CEF,15 embarked for Britain on 20 May 1916.16 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 18 July 1916, when its personnel were absorbed by the '9th Reserve Battalion, CEF'.17 The battalion was disbanded on 21 May 1917.18
The Second World War
The regiment mobilized 'The Calgary Highlanders, CASF' for active service on 1 September 1939.19 It was redesignated the '1st Battalion, The Calgary Highlanders, CASF' on 7 November 1940.20 On 27 August 1940, it embarked for Britain.21 The battalion's mortar platoon took part in the raid on Dieppe on 19 August 1942, and on 6 July 1944, the battalion landed in France as part of the 5th Infantry Brigade, 2nd Canadian Infantry Division, and it continued to fight in North-West Europe until the end of the war.22 The overseas battalion was disbanded on 15 December 1945.23
1. GO 38/10.
2. GO 32/20.
3. GO 68/24.
4. GO 42/41.
5. GO 400/45; and/et GO 85/46.
6. GO 142/14.
7. PC 2067, 6 August 1914; and/et memorandum Preliminary Instructions for Mobn. War 1914, BGen V.A.S. Williams, Adjutant-General, Canadian Militia to O.Cs. Divisions and Districts, 10 August 1914, reprinted in Colonel A.F. Duguid, Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1919, vol. 1 - Appendices and Maps (Ottawa, 1938), pp. 37-39.
8. Ibid., pp. 111 and/et 116.
9. War Diary/Journaux de guerre, 10th Canadian Infantry Battalion, LAC/BAC, RG/GE 9, Series III-D-3, Vol. 4919, File/dossier 372; and/et Daniel G. Dancocks, Gallant Canadians : The Story of the Tenth Canadian Infantry Battalion, 1914-1919, (Markham, 1990), passim.
10. GO 149/20.
11. GO 86/15.
12. CEF Sailing List, vol. III. The unit also sent two reinforcing drafts overseas on 5 July and 11 September 1915 / L'unité envoya également deux contingents de renforts outre-mer les 5 juillet et 11 septembre 1915.
13. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 56th Battalion, Document Collection/Collection de documents 74/672, Series/séries IV, Box/boîte 12, Folder/chemise 56.
14. GO 82/18.
15. GO 103a/15.
16. CEF Sailing List, vol. V.
17. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 82nd Battalion, Document Collection/Collection de documents 74/672, Series/séries IV, Box/boîte 12, Folder/chemise 82.
18. GO 63/17.
19. GO 135/39.
20. GO 42/41.
21. Document Collection/Collection de documents 92/252, (3-6-3) The Calgary Highlanders, Box/boîte 35, Folder/chemise 1.
22. Ibid; and/et Colonel
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