Volume 3, Part 2: Infantry Regiments

THE QUEEN'S OWN RIFLES OF CANADA

The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada Badge

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Colonel-in-Chief: Her Royal Highness RH The Duchess of Cornwall GCVO

BADGE

Description

Gules the numeral "2" Or all within an annulus Sable edged and inscribed QUEEN'S OWN RIFLES OF CANADA in letters Or conjoined at the base by a buckle Or to a scroll Vert edged and inscribed IN PACE PARATUS in letters Or, the whole ensigned by the Royal Crown proper and surmounting a maple leaf Argent.

Symbolism

The maple leaf represents service to Canada, and the crown, service to the Sovereign. The numeral "2" is the original battalion and regimental designation of the unit, and red and green are customary colours for rifle regiments. "QUEEN'S OWN RIFLES OF CANADA" is a form of the regimental title, and "IN PACE PARATUS" is the motto of the regiment.

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MOTTO

IN PACE PARATUS (In peace prepared)

MARCHES

Quick Marches

"The Buffs" and "The Maple Leaf Forever"

Double Past

"Money Musk"

ALLIANCE

British Army

The Brigade of Gurkhas; The Rifles; and The Princess of Wales's Royal Regiment

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BATTLE HONOURS

North West Rebellion

NORTH WEST CANADA, 1885.

South African War

SOUTH AFRICA, 1899-1900.

The First World War

YPRES, 1915, '17; Gravenstafel; St. Julien; FESTUBERT, 1915; MOUNT SORREL; SOMME, 1916; Pozières; Flers-Courcelette; Ancre Heights; ARRAS, 1917, '18; Vimy, 1917; Arleux; Scarpe, 1917, '18; HILL 70; Passchendaele; AMIENS; Drocourt-Quéant; HINDENBURG LINE; Canal du Nord; PURSUIT TO MONS; FRANCE AND FLANDERS, 1915-18.

The Second World War

NORMANDY LANDING; Le Mesnil-Patry; CAEN; Carpiquet; BOURGUÉBUS RIDGE; Faubourg de Vaucelles; FALAISE; Quesnay Wood; The Laison; Boulogne, 1944; Calais, 1944; THE SCHELDT; Breskens Pocket; THE RHINELAND; Waal Flats; The Hochwald; THE RHINE; Emmerich-Hoch Elten; Deventer; NORTH-WEST EUROPE, 1944-1945.

LINEAGE

This Reserve Force regiment originated on 26 April 1860 and incorporates the following regiment and battalions.

The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada originated in Toronto, Ontario on 26 April 1860, when the 'Second Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada' was authorized to be formed.1 It was redesignated: 'Second Battalion Volunteer Militia Rifles of Canada' or 'Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto' on 18 March 1863;2 '2nd Battalion, "Queen's Own Rifles of Canada"' on 13 January 1882;3 '2nd Regiment "Queen's Own Rifles of Canada"' on 8 May 1900;4 'The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada' on 1 May 1920;5 '2nd (Reserve) Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada' on 7 November 1941;6 and 'The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada' on 14 May 1946;7 On 16 October 1953, it was amalgamated with the '1st Canadian Rifle Battalion' and the '2nd Canadian Rifle Battalion' (see below), retaining the same designation.8

Notes:
On 1 May 1906, the 2nd Regiment "Queen's Own Rifles of Canada" was organized as a two battalion regiment, with both the '1st Battalion' and '2nd Battalion' on the Non Permanent Active Militia order of battle (GO 72/06).

Upon redesignation as The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada on 1 May 1920 (see above), it was organized as a four battalion regiment with the 1st Battalion (83rd Battalion, CEF) and 2nd Battalion (95th Battalion, CEF) on the Non Permanent Active Militia order of battle, and the 3rd Battalion (166th Battalion, CEF) and 4th Battalion (255th Battalion, CEF) on the Reserve order of battle.

The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada were disbanded for the purpose of reorganization on 1 October 1920 and reorganized the same day (GO 232/20). This change was administrative and does not affect the lineage of the regiment.

On 15 June 1926, the 4th Battalion was redesignated the 5th Battalion (255th Battalion, CEF) and the regiment was authorized a new 4th Battalion, designated the 4th Battalion (198th Battalion, CEF) on the Reserve order of battle (GO 57/26).

On 1 December 1926, the battalions were redesignated the 1st Battalion (3rd Battalion, CEF), 2nd Battalion (83rd Battalion, CEF), 3rd Battalion (95th Battalion, CEF), 4th Battalion (166th Battalion, CEF), and 5th Battalion (198th Battalion, CEF). The regiment was also authorized a new 6th Battalion on the Reserve order of battle designated the 6th Battalion (255th Battalion, CEF) (GO 93/26).

On 14 December 1936, the Queen's Own Rifles of Canada (less Regimental Headquarters) were disbanded for the purpose of amalgamating the 1st Battalion (83rd Battalion, CEF) and 2nd Battalion (95th Battalion, CEF) and disbanding the reserve units. The regiment was reorganized the next day as a one battalion regiment . The Regimental Headquarters was disbanded on 15 April 1937 (GO 162/36 and GO 3/37). These changes were administrative and do not affect the lineage of the regiment.

On 4 May 1951, the regiment mobilized two temporary Active Force companies designated "E" and "F" Company (CAO 110-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 245/51; and SD 1 Letter No. 4237, 5 May 1951). "E" Company was reduced to nil strength upon its personnel being incorporated into the '1st Canadian Rifle Battalion' for service in Germany with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization (SD 1 Letter No. 4365, 12 November 1951). It was disbanded on 29 July 1953 (CAO 78-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 352/53). "F" Company was initially used as a reinforcement pool for "E" Company. On 15 May 1952, it was reduced to nil strength, upon its personnel being absorbed by the newly formed '2nd Canadian Rifle Battalion' for service in Korea with the United Nations (SD 1 Letter No. 4452, 22 April 1952; and CAO 110-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 283/52). "F" Company was disbanded on 29 July 1953 (CAO 78-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 352/53).

On 16 October 1953, the Reserve Force unit was redesignated as the '3rd Battalion' (CAO 76-3, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 358/53).

On 15 September 1968, the 2nd Battalion was reduced to nil strength and transferred to the Supplementary Order of Battle (CFOO 68/33; and Amendment List No. 1 to CFOO 68/33 dated 9 August 1968).

On 27 April 1970, when the 1st Battalion was reduced to nil strength and transferred to the Supplementary Order of Battle, the Reserve Force battalion automatically relinquished its battalion designation (Message, CANFORCEHED DO 32, 011845Z APR 70, Document Collection 73/1223, Series 2, File 1050, Box 55).

The 1st Canadian Rifle Battalion originated in Valcartier, Quebec on 4 May 1951, when the '1st Canadian Rifle Battalion' was authorized to be formed in the Active Force.9 On 16 October 1953, it was redesignated '1st Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada', as above.

The 2nd Canadian Rifle Battalion originated in Valcartier, Quebec on 10 April 1952, when the '2nd Canadian Rifle Battalion' was authorized to be formed in the Active Force.10 On 16 October 1953, it was redesignated '2nd Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada', as above.

Perpetuations

'3rd', '83rd', '95th', '166th', '198th' and '255th "Overseas" Battalion(s), CEF'

Headquarters Location

Toronto, Ontario

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OPERATIONAL HISTORY

The Fenian Raids

The 'Queen's Own Rifles of Toronto' were called out on active service from 8 to 31 March and from 1 to 22 June 1866. The battalion fought on the Niagara frontier.11

North West Rebellion

The '2nd Battalion, "Queen's Own Rifles of Canada"' mobilized detachments for active service on 10 April 1885.12 The detachments served with the Battleford Column of the North West Field Force,13 and were removed from active service on 24 July 1885.14

South African War

The regiment contributed volunteers for the Canadian Contingents, mainly the '2nd (Special Service) Battalion, Royal Canadian Regiment of Infantry'.15

The First World War

Details of the regiment were placed on active service on 6 August 1914 for local protection duties.16

The 3rd Battalion, which was authorized on 10 August 1914 as the '3rd Battalion, CEF',17 embarked for Britain on 26 September 1914.18 It disembarked in France on 11 February 1915, where it fought as part of the 1st Infantry Brigade, 1st Canadian Division in France and Flanders until the end of the war.19 The battalion was disbanded on 30 August 1920.20

The 83rd Battalion, which was authorized on 10 July 1915 as the '83rd "Overseas" Battalion, CEF',21 embarked for Britain on 28 April 1916.22 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 7 July 1916, when its personnel were absorbed by the '12th Reserve Battalion, CEF'.23 The battalion was disbanded on 21 May 1917.24

The 95th Battalion, which was authorized on 22 December 1915 as the '95th "Overseas" Battalion, CEF',25 embarked for Britain on 31 May 1916.26 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 24 January 1917, when its personnel were absorbed by the '5th Reserve Battalion, CEF'.27 The battalion was disbanded on 17 July 1917.28

The 166th Battalion, which was authorized on 22 December 1915 as the '166th "Overseas" Battalion, CEF',29 embarked for Britain on 12 and 17 October 1916.30 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 8 January 1917, when its personnel were absorbed by the '12th Reserve Battalion, CEF'.31 The battalion was disbanded on 15 September 1917.32

The 198th Battalion, which was authorized on 15 July 1916 as the '198th "Overseas" Battalion, CEF',33 embarked for Britain on 28 March 1917.34 It provided reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field until 9 March 1918, when its personnel were absorbed by the '3rd Reserve Battalion, CEF'.35 The battalion was disbanded on 29 November 1918.36

The 255th Battalion, which was authorized on 1 May 1917 as the '255th "Overseas" Battalion, CEF',37 embarked for Britain on 6 June 1917.38 On 12 June 1917, its personnel were absorbed by the '12th Reserve Battalion, CEF' to provide reinforcements for the Canadian Corps in the field.39 The battalion was disbanded on 1 September 1917.40

The Second World War

The regiment mobilized 'The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, CASF' for active service on 24 May 1940.41 It was redesignated the '1st Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, CASF' on 7 November 1940.42 The unit, which served in Newfoundland from 10 August to 15 December 1940, embarked for Britain on 19 July 1941.43 On D-Day, 6 June 1944, the regiment landed in Normandy, France as part of the 8th Infantry Brigade, 3rd Canadian Infantry Division, and it continued to fight in North-West Europe until the end of the war.44 The overseas battalion was disbanded on 30 November 1945.45

The regiment subsequently mobilized the '3rd Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, CASF' for active service on 12 May 1942.46 It served in Canada in a home defence role as part of the 20th Infantry Brigade, 7th Canadian Division.47 The battalion was disbanded on 15 August 1943.48

On 1 June 1945, a third Active Force component of the regiment, designated '4th Battalion, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, CIC, CAOF', was mobilized for service with the Canadian Army Occupation Force in Germany.49 The battalion was disbanded on 14 May 1946.50

COLOURS

Rifle regiments do not carry Colours. They may emblazon their battle honours on unit appointments such as cap badges or shoulder pouch belt plates.

CAMP FLAG

The Queen’s Own Rifles of Canada


1. MGO, 26 April 1860. Formed from six independent rifle companies authorized on the following dates: 'No. 1 Company' (Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Barrie, 27 December 1855), 'No. 2 Company' (1st Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Toronto, 20 March 1856), 'No. 3 Company' (3d Volunteer Rifle Company of Toronto, 20 March 1856), 'No. 4 Company' (The Toronto Highland Volunteer Rifle Company, 18 September 1856), 'No. 5 Company' (The Volunteer Foot Artillery Company of Toronto, 13 November 1856, converted to a rifle company on 26 April 1860), and 'No. 6 Company' (The Volunteer Highland Rifle Company of Whitby, 31 March 1858) / Formé de six compagnies de voltigeurs indépendante autorisées selon les dates suivantes : « No. 1 Company » (Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Barrie, 27 décembre 1855), « No. 2 Company » (1st Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Toronto, 20 mars 1856), « No. 3 Company » (3d Volunteer Militia Rifle Company of Toronto, 20 mars 1856), « No. 4 Company » (The Toronto Highland Volunteer Rifle Company, 18 septembre 1856), « No. 5 Company » (The Volunteer Foot Artillery Company of Toronto, 13 novembre 1856, converti à une compagnie de voltigeurs le 26 avril 1860), et « No. 6 Company » (The Volunteer Highland Rifle Company of Whitby, 31 mars 1858).

2. MGO, 18 March 1863.

3. MGO 1/82.

4. MO 105/1900.

5. GO 66/20.

6. GO 42/41.

7. GO 201/46; and/ et GO 400/45.

8. CAO 76-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 358/53.

9. CAO 110-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No. 245/51; and/ et John Marteinson, We Stand on Guard, (Montreal, 1992), pp. 372-382. Formed for service in Germany with the North Atlantic Treaty Organization from the personnel of five Active Force rifle companies, all designated '"E" Company', raised by The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, The Victoria Rifles of Canada, The Royal Winnipeg Rifles, The Regina Rifle Regiment and The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) / Formé pour le service en Allemagne avec l'Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord à partir du personnel de cinq compagnies de voltigeurs de la Force active, toutes désignées compagnie « E », levées par le « The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada », « The Victoria Rifles of Canada », « The Royal Winnipeg Rifles », « The Regina Rifle Regiment » et « The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) ».

10. CAO 110-2, Pt 'B', Supp Issue No 283/52; SD 1 Letter No. 4452, 22 April 1952; and/ et and/ et John Marteinson, We Stand on Guard, (Montreal, 1992), pp. 372-382. Formed for service in Korea with the United Nations from the personnel of five Active Force rifle companies, all designated '"F" Company', raised by The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada, The Victoria Rifles of Canada, The Royal Winnipeg Rifles, The Regina Rifle Regiment and The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) / Formé pour le service en Allemagne avec l'Organisation du Traité de l'Atlantique Nord à partir du personnel de cinq compagnies de voltigeurs de la Force active, toutes désignées compagnie « F », levées par le « The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada », « The Victoria Rifles of Canada », « The Royal Winnipeg Rifles », « The Regina Rifle Regiment » et « The Royal Hamilton Light Infantry (Wentworth Regiment) ».

11. MGO 8 March 1866; MGO 28 March 1866; MGO 1 June 1866; and/ et MGO 22 June 1866.

12. MGO 8/85.

13. General Sir Frederick Middleton, Suppression of the Rebellion in the North West Territories of Canada 1885, (Toronto, 1948), p. 22.

14. MGO 16/85.

15. GO 60/33.

16. GO 146/14.

17. PC 2067, 6 August 1914; and/ et memorandum Preliminary Instructions for Mobn. War 1914, BGen V.A.S. Williams, Adjutant-General, Canadian Militia to O.Cs. Divisions and Districts, 10 August 1914, reprinted in Colonel A.F. Duguid, Official History of the Canadian Forces in the Great War, 1914-1919, vol. 1 - Appendices and Maps (Ottawa, 1938), pp. 37-39.

18. Ibid., pp. 111 and/ et 116.

19. Ibid., p. 454; and/ et War Diary/ Journaux de guerre, 3rd Canadian Infantry Battalion, LAC/BAC, RG/GE 9, Series III-D-3, Vol. 4914-13, File/ dossier 356.

20. GO 149/20.

21. GO 103a/15.

22. CEF Sailing List, vol. V. The unit also sent a reinforcing draft overseas on 25 September 1915 / L'unité envoya également un contingent de renforts outre-mer le 25 septembre 1915.

23. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 83rd Battalion, Document Collection/ Collection de documents 74/672, Series/ séries IV, Box/ boîte 12, Folder/ chemise 83.

24. GO 63/17.

25. GO 151/15.

26. CEF Sailing List, vol. V.

27. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 95th Battalion, Document Collection/ Collection de documents 74/672, Series/ séries IV, Box/ boîte 12, Folder/ chemise 95.

28. GO 82/18.

29. GO 151/15.

30. CEF Sailing List, vol. VII.

31. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 166th Battalion, Document Collection/ Collection de documents 74/672, Series/ séries IV, Box/ boîte 13, Folder/ chemise 166.

32. GO 82/18.

33. GO 69/16.

34. CEF Sailing List, vol. IX.

35. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 198th Battalion, Document Collection/ Collection de documents 74/672, Series/ séries IV, Box/ boîte 13, Folder/ chemise 198.

36. GO 135/18.

37. GO 48/17.

38. CEF Sailing List, vol. XI.

39. Edwin Pye Papers, Summary of History of C.E.F. Units - 255th Battalion, Document Collection/ Collection de documents 74/672, Series/ séries IV, Box/ boîte 13, Folder/ chemise 255.

40. GO 82/18.

41. GO 184/40; and/et GO 50/41.

42. GO 42/41.

43. Lieutenant-Colonel W.T. Barnard, The Queen's Own Rifles of Canada 1860-1960: One Hundred Years of Canada, (Don Mills, 1960), pp. 146-158, and /et 163. The regiment departed Newfoundland in three drafts, starting on 25 November 1940 / Le régiment quitta Terre-Neuve en trois contingents, à partir du 25 novembre 1940.

44. Colonel C.P. Stacey, The Victory Campaign: The Operations in North-West Europe 1944-1945, (Ottawa, 1966), passim.

45. GO 85/46.

46. GO 309/42.

47. Colonel C.P. Stacey, Official History of the Canadian Army in the Second World War, Volume 1, Six Years of War (Ottawa, 1955), p. 537.

48. GO 438/43.

49. GO 319/45.

50. GO 201/46.

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